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记者体验朝鲜消费:工资在市场买不起半斤苹果
2013-08-27 21:55:00

  杜白羽

  朝鲜半岛素有“南男北女”一说,即韩国小伙帅,朝鲜姑娘美。常常看到平壤街头,娇秀的天然美女牵手的却是其貌不扬的黑瘦男子。崇尚“先军”的朝鲜男人,以历经风吹日晒的军旅生涯为荣,因而普遍黑红精瘦,身着统一的橄榄绿或灰黑色套装,单看外表,看不出身份差别。但是,一旦你走进平壤海棠花馆,以上这种印象马上就会被颠覆。

  5月初开业的海棠花馆,成为平壤集购物、餐饮、健身、洗浴、按摩、美容等于一体的“消费圣地”。但其消费水平令人咋舌:按摩30美元、游泳15美元、汗蒸5美元,价位比其他地方贵出50%,出入一趟下来,稍不留神就花出去百十美元;二层餐厅铁板烧价格不菲,定食烤肉菜单分为一人份50美元和70美元两种,而消费得起的多是朝鲜精英阶层。如此价格,不少外国人也表示真是“贵得离谱”。

  三层洗浴明文规定:所有健身休闲项目都为前来洗浴的顾客服务。即如果客人只想按摩,或美容,或健身,依然要交纳15美元的洗浴“入场费”(包含游泳)。尽管如此,朝鲜青年男女仍然乐意选择在此约会。来朝鲜一年多来,我第一次在海棠花馆见到朝鲜“高富帅”“花美男”,衣着气质与北京、上海的精英阶层难分差别。

  在朝鲜,提起海棠花馆,颇有身份和地位象征的意思。但大多数朝鲜人都还没有尝试过如此奢侈的消费,表示“听说特别贵”。比起海棠花馆的高不可攀,其街对面的柳京苑价位可谓大众惠民,桑拿5000朝元(1000朝元约合人民币6.8元),乒乓球1000朝元,洗澡只需100朝元,成为平壤百姓最爱去的休闲场所。

  有了海棠花馆的竞争,此前平壤最高端的大同江外交团会馆为了吸引客源,也采取了新的营销策略。大同江外交团会馆的游泳馆此前只是每周三、五、六对外国人开放,每周二、四、日对朝鲜人开放,6月中旬新规定出台:朝鲜人和外国人不再受时间限制,可以“混泳”了。

  最初开放“混泳”时,泳池服务员还会要求朝鲜人和外国人分开泳道,后来渐渐也就放任不再管。游泳的朝鲜人中,有佩戴专业潜水工具的“高富帅”,也有身着大尺度泳衣的“白富美”。

  一次,我在那里游泳,见一个戴奢侈名表“炫富”的朝鲜男子蝶泳游得相当不错。我主动打招呼问道:“你的手表防水吗?”蝶泳男目视前方,轻描淡写道:“嗯,从迪拜买的劳力士。”“哦,多少钱买的啊?”他侧脸瞄了我一下,淡定地说:“朋友送的。”

  这是朝鲜人婉拒回答奢侈品价格的最常用表达。

  朝鲜一年多来的确洋气了许多,被称作朝鲜“曼哈顿”“小迪拜”的平壤仓田街区,各色综合餐厅、外汇超市为人民生活提供了多样化丰富选择。自执政以来,金正恩多次强调“要让朝鲜人民享受社会主义荣华富贵”,近期密集视察,要求对海滨浴场、骑马俱乐部等娱乐设施进行修建,建设世界级滑雪场,以满足“人民对文化生活的需要”。

  在朝鲜餐厅用餐、超市购物,有个十分有趣而独特的现象:各种货币可混合交易结算。比如一份拌饭,菜单上标价为“8000”朝元。但结算时却只能用外汇。按照官方比价美元对朝币1比1000的汇率换算,即约8美元。假设你拿出50元人民币,服务员会迅速地按照汇率排价给你找零2元人民币,或再次按照“黑市”价,找你与2元人民币差不多等值的2000朝元。

  初到朝鲜来的游客,往往糊涂了,这是什么情况?国家开出的月工资平均在3000朝元,而市场上一斤苹果就卖到1万朝元,但供应体制内的米面油蛋肉的定价却只有十几朝元。按照一些朝鲜朋友的说法,“工资够用了”,甚至抽的烟、化妆品等,都是按照超低的配给价供应,“不够的话,再以市场价高价购买”。

  朝鲜政府2009年更换货币后,人民币和美元等外汇在朝鲜的流通日益广泛。现在普通朝鲜民众手里都持有一定数量的外币。朝元对美元汇率基本稳定。现阶段在朝鲜外汇“黑市”,1人民币可兑换1200朝元,1美元可兑换7320朝元。官方汇率为1美元兑1000朝元,两者之间的差距有7倍之多。

  根据朝鲜的经济双轨制,居民可用外币购买一些配给制之外的商品。但在其经济相对封闭的环境下,普通民众如何获得外汇,上流阶层又是何以高收入高消费的,始终是个谜。

  来源:2013年8月16日出版的《环球》杂志 第16期

  环球》杂志授权使用,其他媒体如需转载,请与本刊联系

 
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